Thorium (/ ˈ θ ɔər i əm / THOHReeəm) is a chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is a naturally occurring, slightly radioactive metal. A Thorium atom has 90 protons and 90 electrons, of which 4 are valence electrons. Jöns Jakob Berzelius discovered it in 1828 and named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.
Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels.
Thorium disintegrates with the eventual production of "thoron", an isotope of radon (220Rn). Radon gas is a radiation hazard. Good ventilation of areas where thorium is stored or handled is therefore essential. Exposure to thorium in the air can lead to increased .
Oct 28, 2014· Radioactivity produced water. Riverine supply of particle bound uranium, radium, thorium and daughters to estuarine areas with desorption in the mixing zone and release to the seawater. 2. A presence of mother nuclides with mobilisation to sediment pore water by alpha recoil generate nuclides in marine sediments.
Although thorium (Th) has multiple naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope is relatively stable, having a large half life in comparison to the age of the earth (232 Th). Nearly all natural thorium is 232 Th. As such, thorium is considered to be mononuclidic. It has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition and thus an atomic mass can be given.
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Historische Bezeichnungen. In der klassischen Zeit der Erforschung der radioaktiven Zerfallsreihen wurden die verschiedenen Nuklide mit anderen Namen bezeichnet, an denen sich die Zugehörigkeit zu einer natürlichen Zerfallsreihe und die Ähnlichkeit in den Eigenschaften erkennen ließ (z. B. sind Radon, Thoron und Actinon alles Edelgase):
Thorium230. 230 Th is a radioactive isotope of thorium that can be used to date corals and determine ocean current flux. Ionium was a name given early in the study of radioactive elements to the 230 Th isotope produced in the decay chain of 238 U before it was realized that ionium and thorium are chemically identical.
Hypoiodous acid is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula HIO. It forms when an aqueous solution of iodine is treated with mercuric or silver salts. It rapidly decomposes by disproportionation: 5 HIO → HIO 3 + 2I 2 + 2H 2 O Hypoiodous acid is a weak acid with a K a of about 10 − conjugate base is hypoiodite (IO−
Io (Greek) The daughter of Inachos, first king of Argos, she was beloved by Zeus and changed into a heifer to avoid Hera's jealousy. Hera, not deceived, had the heifer watched by the hundredeyed Argos, who was then slain by Hermes at the command of Zeus. After many wanderings in Europe and Asia, Io recovered her form in Egypt and gave birth to the dark Epaphos who became king of Egypt and ...
Thorium 232 capture un neutron il se transforme en thorium 233 233th qui se désintègre à son tour en uranium 233 fissile son activité massique[13 est de 4, le thorium. Les isotopes du radon son état gazeux le rendant susceptible d'être facilement inhalé sa très faible ce qui est obtenu par les autres filières nucléaires ...
Despite uncertainties about the sites subject matter, they determined early on that it involves using thorium (Th)rather than uranium to obtain energy. Kirk Sorensen, the, webmaster behind the site has been advocating a molten salt reactor powered by Th for some time.
Valores in unitates SI e in le conditiones normal del material (25 °C, 100 kPa) si non indica al contrario.
TED talk by former NASA engineer Kirk Sorensen about Thorium energy production (video) India's experimental Thorium Fuel Cycle Nuclear Reactor (NDTV Report) Thorium Remix 2011 – 120 minute Creative Commons ShareAlike documentary on Thorium as an energy source; Newspaper article about thorium power in India
The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge (1919) "The emanations of thorium and radium behave like heavy gases and are ... The emanation of thorium condenses at—120° C., and that from radium at —150° C. ..." 2. Science by American Association for the Advancement of Science (1905)
Although it does not occur naturally, uranium233 is also a fissionable material that can be used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. To produce uranium233, atoms of thorium232 are exposed to neutrons. Thorium233 forms when thorium232 absorbs a neutron. Thorium233 has a halflife of about 22 minutes and decays into protactinium233 through beta ...